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Kitab Al-Furusiyya wa Al-Manasib Al-Harbiyya
By Hassan Al-Rammah

The Book of Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices, c. 1280

(Date uncertain. Pages may have been added in the 15th century).


Referenced on p. 38, David Nicolle and Sam Thompson, Medieval Siege Weapons (2): Byzantium, the Islamic World and India AD 476-1256 (Northants, UK: Osprey Publishing, 2003).

A Mamluk Engineer with Midfa in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on this illustration.
Incendiary weapons in Kitab al-makhzun li arbab al-funun by al-tarâbulusî, a manual of military practice and horsemanship, 1578-1579
Other Egyptian sources:
Christians and Muslims fight outside an Islamic City from Histoire d'Outremer by William of Tyre. St Petersburg Manuscript of 1280AD.
Illustrations from Nihayat al-sul-1371 a Mameluke manual of horsemanship and military practice, 1371.
10th to 19th century Egypt and its territories

Other 13th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers