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Illustrations in the 1305-14
Jami‛ al-Tawarikh
by Rashid al-Din.

Universal History

or Compendium of Chronicles

Ğāmi‛ al-tavārīḫ. Rašīd al-Dīn Fazl-ullāh Hamadānī


Edinburgh manuscript Or 20
City of Iram, f1r
City of Iram, f1r
Prophet Salih Produces a Camel from a Rock, f1v
Prophet Salih Produces a Camel from a Rock, f1v
Hushang enthroned, f2r
Hushang enthroned, f2r
Tahmuras enthroned, f2v upper
Tahmuras enthroned, f2v upper
Jamshid enthroned, f2v lower
Jamshid enthroned, f2v lower
Zahhak enthroned, f3r
Zahhak enthroned, f3r
Ibrahim catapulted by King Namrud, f3v
Ibrahim catapulted by King Namrud, f3v
Manuchehr enthroned with Rostam in attendance, f6r
Manuchehr enthroned with Rostam in attendance, f6r
Moses in the Bullrushes, f7v
Moses in the Bullrushes, f7v
Moses Hearing God's Voice, f8r
Moses Hearing God's Voice, f8r
Moses and Aaron and the Israelites watch the Egyptians drown in the Red Sea, f8v
Moses and Aaron and the Israelites watch the Egyptians drown in the Red Sea, f8v
Qarun and his tribe swallowed up by the earth, f9r
Qarun and his tribe swallowed up by the earth, f9r
Musa Slays the Giant 'Uj ibn 'Anaq, f9v
Musa Slays the Giant 'Uj ibn 'Anaq, f9v
Yusha orders property taken at Jericho to be destroyed, f10v
Yusha orders property taken at Jericho to be destroyed, f10v
Samson destroys the Philistine temple, f11r
Samson destroys the Philistine temple, f11r
Lohrasp enthroned with scribes in attendance, f12v
Lohrasp enthroned with scribes in attendance, f12v
The Prophet Armia, f13v
The Prophet Armia, f13v
Gushtasp adopts Zoroastrianism, f14v
Gushtasp adopts Zoroastrianism, f14v
The dying Rostam shoots Shaghad, f15v
The dying Rostam shoots Shaghad, f15v
The widow and son of Siyavush to Kavus, f16v
The widow and son of Siyavush to Kavus, f16v
David judges between two brothers, f17r
David judges between two brothers, f17r
Eskandar enters the Land of Darkness, f19r
Eskandar enters the Land of Darkness, f19r
The Annunciation, f22r
The Annunciation, f22r
The seven sleepers of Ephesus, f23r
The seven sleepers of Ephesus, f23r
Yunus and the Whale, f23v
Yunus and the Whale, f23v
Jurjays Miraculously Protected When Tortured by the King of Mosul for Refusing to Worship Idols, f26r
Jurjays Miraculously Protected When Tortured by the King of Mosul for Refusing to Worship Idols, f26r
Hurmuzd Enthroned, 34r
Hurmuzd Enthroned, 34r
Abd al-Muttalib and al-Harith about to Discover the Well at Zamzam, f41r
Abd al-Muttalib and al-Harith about to Discover the Well at Zamzam, f41r
Birth of the Prophet Muhammed, f42r
Birth of the Prophet Muhammed, f42r
Mohammad as a youth meets the monk Bahira, f43v
Mohammad as a youth meets the monk Bahira, f43v
Mohammed positions the black stone at the Kaaba, f45r
Mohammed positions the black stone at the Kaaba, f45r
Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel, f45v
Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel, f45v
Five early Muslim converts being led to torture, f48v
Five early Muslim converts being led to torture, f48v
Negus, Christian ruler of Abyssinia, refusing to give up Muslim refugees, f52r
Negus, Christian ruler of Abyssinia, refusing to give up Muslim refugees, f52r
The Quraysh tribe, who controlled the area around Makkah (Mecca),f54r
The Quraysh tribe, who controlled the area around Makkah (Mecca),f54r
Night Ride of Mohammed on Buraq, f55r
Night Ride of Mohammed on Buraq, f55r
Mohammed and Abu Bakr on their way to Medina while a woman milks a herd of goats, f57v
Mohammed and Abu Bakr on their way to Medina while a woman milks a herd of goats, f57v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, conquering Qasdar in India, f108v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, conquering Qasdar in India, f108v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, routing rebels in Qasdar, f109v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, routing rebels in Qasdar, f109v
The Buyid al-Dawla brothers in a struggle for succession, f110v
The Buyid al-Dawla brothers in a struggle for succession, f110v
Battle between Abu'l Hasan Simjuri, the Governor of Khurasan and Tash, a Turkic general, for control of Khurasan, f111v
Battle between Abu'l Hasan Simjuri, the Governor of Khurasan and Tash, a Turkic general, for control of Khurasan, f111v
Governor of Gurgan punishing a prisoner for the death of the governor Tash in 998, f112r
Governor of Gurgan punishing a prisoner for the death of the governor Tash in 998, f112r
Battle between Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, and Abu Ali ibn Simjuri, f114v
Battle between Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, and Abu Ali ibn Simjuri, f114v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, ruler of the Turkish Ghaznavid Dynasty, astride a battle elephant, f115v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, ruler of the Turkish Ghaznavid Dynasty, astride a battle elephant, f115v
The Khwarazmshah Yusuf is executed by al-Mamum, f116v
The Khwarazmshah Yusuf is executed by al-Mamum, f116v
Samanid statesman Abu'l-Husain killed by Buyids at Bukhara, f117v
Samanid statesman Abu'l-Husain killed by Buyids at Bukhara, f117v
Abu Salih Mansur succeeding his father, Nur I, as king of the Samanid Empire, f118r
Abu Salih Mansur succeeding his father, Nur I, as king of the Samanid Empire, f118r
Battle between the sons of Sabuktagin, Mahmud and Isma'il, f119r
Battle between the sons of Sabuktagin, Mahmud and Isma'il, f119r
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, defeating an opponent at Baktuzun in 999CE, f120r
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin, Ghaznavid ruler, defeating an opponent at Baktuzun in 999CE, f120r
Mahmud of Ghazni in robe from the Caliph, f121r
Mahmud of Ghazni in robe from the Caliph, f121r
Battle Between Abu'l-Qasim and the Samanid Muntasir, f122r upper
Battle Between Abu'l-Qasim and the Samanid Muntasir, f122r upper
Muntasir Crossing the Jayhun, f122r lower
Muntasir Crossing the Jayhun, f122r lower
Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin's invasion of the Panjab, f123v
Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin's invasion of the Panjab, f123v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin attacks the rebel fortress of Zarang in Sijistan in 1003AD, f124v
Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin attacks the rebel fortress of Zarang in Sijistan in 1003AD, f124v
Besieged defenders of Mashhad al-Dai advancing to battle, f125r
Besieged defenders of Mashhad al-Dai advancing to battle, f125r
Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin about to engage in battle with the ruler of Bahatiyah (India), f126v
Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin about to engage in battle with the ruler of Bahatiyah (India), f126v
Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin defeats Ilak Khan, ruler of Bengal, f127v
Ghaznavid ruler Mahmud ibn Sebuktegin defeats Ilak Khan, ruler of Bengal, f127v
Ilkhanid Mongols beseiging a city, f130v
Ilkhanid Mongols beseiging a city, f130v
Mongols in battle, f133v
Mongols in battle, f133v
Mahmud of Ghazni crosses the Ganges, f134v
Mahmud of Ghazni crosses the Ganges, f134v
Khalili manuscript 727
Mahmud of Ghazna's Conquest of India, f179v
Mahmud of Ghazna's Conquest of India, f179v
Sultan Berkyaruq bin Malikshah, f187v
Sultan Berkyaruq bin Malikshah, f187v
A siege
A siege
Mohammed exhorting his family before the battle of Badr, f5a/66a
Mohammed exhorting his family before the battle of Badr, f5a/66a
Mohammed leading Hamza and the Muslims against Banu Qaynuqa, f6a/67a
Mohammed leading Hamza and the Muslims against Banu Qaynuqa, f6a/67a
Mohammed receiving the submission of the Banu Nadir, f8a/72a
Mohammed receiving the submission of the Banu Nadir, f8a/72a
Two Emperors of the Qi and Liang Dynasties, f14a/254a
Two Emperors of the Qi and Liang Dynasties, f14a/254a
The emperor Xuandi of the late Liang, f14b/254b
The emperor Xuandi of the late Liang, f14b/254b
The mountains of India, f21/261a
The mountains of India, f21/261a
The mountains between India and Tibet, with a female pilgrim in Indian dress, f22a/262a
The mountains between India and Tibet, with a female pilgrim in Indian dress, f22a/262a
Battle of the Pandavas and the Kauravas, from the Indian epic, the Mahabharata, f25a/265a
Battle of the Pandavas and the Kauravas, from the Indian epic, the Mahabharata, f25a/265a
The Execution of Jalal-al-Din Firuzshah II (r1290-96), the Khalji, sultan of Delhi, by his rebellious nephew, f27a/267a
The Execution of Jalal-al-Din Firuzshah II (r1290-96), the Khalji, sultan of Delhi, by his rebellious nephew, f27a/267a
The nobles of Kashmir enthrone a fakir as King Yashaskara (r939-48), f28b/268b
The nobles of Kashmir enthrone a fakir as King Yashaskara (r939-48), f28b/268b
Ravan, king of Lanka and king of the demons, lies dead before Rama, a scene from the Indian epic, the Ramayana, f30b/270b
Ravan, king of Lanka and king of the demons, lies dead before Rama, a scene from the Indian epic, the Ramayana, f30b/270b
Shakyamuni offering fruit to the devil, from the life of the Buddha, f34a/274a
Shakyamuni offering fruit to the devil, from the life of the Buddha, f34a/274a
The Grove of Jetavana, where the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, f36b/276b
The Grove of Jetavana, where the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, f36b/276b
Kushinagar, where the Buddha achieved Nirvana, f37b/277b
Kushinagar, where the Buddha achieved Nirvana, f37b/277b
Noah's Ark, f45a/285a
Noah's Ark, f45a/285a
Jacob, with three of his sons and his two wives, Leah and Rachel, f47b/287b
Jacob, with three of his sons and his two wives, Leah and Rachel, f47b/287b
Joseph, his robe torn by Potiphar's wife (Zulaykha), appears before Potiphar, f48a/288a
Joseph, his robe torn by Potiphar's wife (Zulaykha), appears before Potiphar, f48a/288a
Joseph and his brethren, f49a/289a
Joseph and his brethren, f49a/289a
Moses commands the Levites to behead those who had worshipped the Golden Calf, f52a/292a
Moses commands the Levites to behead those who had worshipped the Golden Calf, f52a/292a
The death of Moses on Mt Nebo, f54a/294a
The death of Moses on Mt Nebo, f54a/294a
Saul, abandoned by Jehovah, is defeated by the Philistines and falls on his sword, f56a/296a
Saul, abandoned by Jehovah, is defeated by the Philistines and falls on his sword, f56a/296a
Jonah and the whale, f59a/299a
Jonah and the whale, f59a/299a
The Jami‛ al Tawarikh (compendium of chronicles), was in four parts: (1) the history of the Mongols from Jenghis Khan to the death of Ghazan (2) a history of Öljeytü, followed by a long universal history from Adam, the biblical patriarchs and the ancient kings of Persia to Muhammad and the caliphs; (3) the 'Five Dynasties' of the Arabs, the Jews, the Mongols, the Franks and the Chinese; and (4) a geographical compendium.
The history of Öljeytü and the geographical compendium are lost, and the principle illustrated section appears to have been the world history, now in two different fascicles (one in Edinburgh University Library, the other the Khalili manuscript), which were haphazardly rebound in the 18th century.
Il-Khanid Tabriz
Large-format sheets (each page measures some 50 x 37 cms, thus half-baḡdādi size) of glazed, ivory-colored paper with 35 lines of clear nasḵ script.
Drawing in black ink heightened with a thin colored wash, sometimes highlighted with silver and bright opaque colors.


Ilkhanid Light Cavalry in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
Ilkhanid Heavy Cavalry in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
Persian Cavalryman c.1320 in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath
Bedouin Tribesmen in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
References:
Sheila S. Blair, A compendium of chronicles: Rashid al-Din's illustrated history of the world [=The Nasser D Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, vol XXVII], London 1995.
pp. 156-159, pp. 160-163, pp. 164-167, J.M. Rogers, The arts of Islam. Masterpieces from the Khalili collection, London 2010.
Min Yong Cho, How Land Came Into The Picture: Rendering History In The Fourteenth-Century Jami Al-Tawarikh, The University of Michigan 2008. PDF
More information on the Khalili Collection, MS. 727, Jami‛ al-Tawarikh of Rashid al-Din.



Other Illustrations of Ilkhanid Mongols and Successors in 14th Century Persia and surrounds

Persian Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers